427. In order to prevent or attenuate possible conflicts between the Church and the political community, the juridical experience of the Church and the State have variously defined stable forms of contact and suitable instruments for guaranteeing harmonious relations. This experience is an essential reference point for all cases in which the State has the presumption to invade the Church's area of action, impairing the freedom of her activity to the point of openly persecuting her or, vice versa, for cases in which church organizations do not act properly with respect to the State.
The United States remains in a heightened threat environment fueled by several factors, including an online environment filled with false or misleading narratives and conspiracy theories, and other forms of mis- dis- and mal-information (MDM) introduced and/or amplified by foreign and domestic threat actors. These threat actors seek to exacerbate societal friction to sow discord and undermine public trust in government institutions to encourage unrest, which could potentially inspire acts of violence. Mass casualty attacks and other acts of targeted violence conducted by lone offenders and small groups acting in furtherance of ideological beliefs and/or personal grievances pose an ongoing threat to the nation. While the conditions underlying the heightened threat landscape have not significantly changed over the last year, the convergence of the following factors has increased the volatility, unpredictability, and complexity of the threat environment: (1) the proliferation of false or misleading narratives, which sow discord or undermine public trust in U.S. government institutions; (2) continued calls for violence directed at U.S. critical infrastructure; soft targets and mass gatherings; faith-based institutions, such as churches, synagogues, and mosques; institutions of higher education; racial and religious minorities; government facilities and personnel, including law enforcement and the military; the media; and perceived ideological opponents; and (3) calls by foreign terrorist organizations for attacks on the United States based on recent events.
In 1215, after King John of England violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which enumerates what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them was the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and to be protected from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
Another active area in CFS research is the biomanufacturing of therapeutics and other protein-based reagents. Natural biological systems have evolved a remarkable capacity to synthesize a variety of molecules ranging from metabolites to biopolymers. Cell-free protein expression systems allow the incorporation of such reactions into a highly controlled process that allows production of molecules as needed and in the field. Our primary focus here will be on a subset of biopolymers, namely therapeutic proteins. The ongoing work in this field rests on decades of research that have led to the productive and practical systems currently available [28, 29, 36,37,38, 40]. Recent advances in high-throughput preparation techniques [40, 45] and in the development of systems that can use more economical energy sources [64, 65] have made CFS highly accessible. Meanwhile, significant strides are being made towards resolving various protein folding issues and shortcomings in post-translational modifications  associated with traditional CFS. Recent advances have showcased the potential for scaling up cell-free reactions, with some having demonstrated reaction volumes reaching 100 liters [67, 68] to 1000 liters . Cell-free expression has been used as a platform for the production of a wide range of potential therapeutics, some of which have been summarized in Table 1. A number of these products have been validated in animal models [49, 76].
Journal of Early Christian Studies 11.3 (2003) 439-440 // --> [Access article in PDF] D. H. Williams, editor The Free Church and the Early Church: Bridging the Historical and Theological Divide Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002 Pp. xiii + 183. $24. In the preface of this book we are informed that the collection of articles is not the result of a conference but "represents a joint effort of scholars who are seeking to define some of the problems and frame potential answers for what kinds of bridges can be built over the divide that has distanced free church Christianity from its patristic past" (xii). The studies are conducted with a sense of "ecumenical responsibility" (xii). Free church Christianity is taken to designate movements emerging from the "nonmagisterial part of the Protestant Reformation" (vii); the authors are identified in reference to their respective churches (181), and I will retain the labels in order to convey a more concrete sense of what is meant by "free church." In line with this decision, the present reviewer might mention that he is of Roman Catholic background with a keen interest in the history of biblical exegesis in all ecclesial traditions.
Tabbernee offers what can be taken as the most concrete instance of the willingness to offer a revisionist and corrective view of the interaction between the patristic and free churches in his account of Alexander Campbell (one of the founders of Disciples of Christ) and of his expertise in patristic material. It is fascinating to read that ". . . Campbell was able to read and translate the Latin Fathers when need arose. In fact, he was so fluent in Latin that, in his public debate with John B. Purcell, Roman Catholic bishop of Cincinnati... 2b1af7f3a8